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   Table of Contents - Current issue
October-December 2019
Volume 6 | Issue 4
Page Nos. 157-209

Online since Friday, September 6, 2019

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Effect of workshop training on midwives' communication skills and maternal satisfaction in maternity block p. 157
Farideh Rezaei-Abhari, Somayeh Khorshidi, Mehdi Pourasghar, Jamshid Yazdani-Charati, Marjan Ahmad Shirvani
Context: Communication skills have an important role in people satisfactions. Mothers' satisfactions with midwives' communication skills can make an appropriate setting in order to achieve psychological and physical health of mothers. Aims: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of training workshop on midwives' communication skills and mothers' satisfaction in maternity unit. Setting and Design: This semi-experimental study was done with participation of 40 midwives in maternity unit and 100 mothers in postnatural delivery ward in Mahdieh Hospital, Tehran, Iran, in 2016. Materials and Methods: Sampling was done by census method for midwives and by available method for mothers. Two sessions of communication skills workshop were performed for mothers in two consecutive days. Midwives' communication skills were assessed by Jerabek questionnaire and mothers' satisfaction was measured by satisfaction with communication questionnaire before intervention and 4 weeks later. Statistical Analysis Used: Kolmogorov–Smirnov test, frequency, mean, standard deviation, pair and independent t-test, and Pearson correlation coefficient and regression were used for data analysis. Results: Before intervention, mean and standard deviation for midwives' communication skills was 99.44 ± 9.19 and for mothers' satisfaction was 61.88 ± 17.8. After communication skills training workshop, midwives' communication skill raised to 139.62 ± 7.13 (P = 0.002) and mothers' satisfaction increased to 88.68 ± 12.79 (P = 0.003). Conclusion: Communication skill training to midwives may have a positive effect on mothers' satisfaction. Thus, integrating communication skills training in continuing midwifery education program is suggested.
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Cognitive performance and social support in patients under maintenance therapy p. 164
Jabar Heydari Fard, Bahram Mirzaian, Seyed Hamzeh Hoseini
Context: Due to its destructive nature for the health of individual and society, the phenomenon of addiction has always been a worrying social problem. Thus, addiction is an issue of importance for the researchers and social planners. Aims: The purpose of this research was modeling the structural equation modeling (SEM) between craving and psychological trauma through the intermediating role of cognitive performance and social support in patients under maintenance therapy. Settings and Design: This is a descriptive analytic study. All patients undergoing maintenance therapy in outpatient departments of Sari in 2018 were evaluated. Material and Methods: This research was descriptive of SEM type, in particular, regression equations type. The research population consisted of patients undergoing maintenance therapy in addiction treatment centers (n = 9200) in Sari in 2017. According to the inclusion criteria, 400 samples were selected using simple random sampling. Questionnaires of craving, psychological trauma, cognitive performance, and social support were used. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were analyzed using SEM and in particular regression equations. SPSS and AMOS were used for the analysis of the collected data. Results: The results of the study showed that the amount of direct effect of craving on the psychological trauma was equal to 0.330, the indirect effect of craving on psychological trauma through cognitive performance was equal to 0.001, and the total effect was equal to 0.331. Given that the P value for the indirect path was >0.05 and for direct paths and total effect was <0.05, the effect of mediating the cognitive performance variable on the relationship between craving and trauma was not meaningful. Moreover, the amount of direct effect of craving on the trauma was equal to 0.316, the indirect effect of craving on trauma (through social support) was 0.013, and the total effect was equal to 0.329. Considering that the P value for the indirect path was >0.05 and was <0.05 for direct paths and the total effect, the impact of mediating the social support variable in the relationship between craving and trauma was not significant. Conclusion: Considering the direct predictive power of variables, the results of the present study could be used in the therapy of drug addiction and patient education in relation to addicted patients.
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The effect of training program on the knowledge level of midwifery students about child abuse p. 171
Esra Tural Buyuk
Context: Midwives are in a key position given that they are the first members of the healthcare profession to meet the baby and the family in both the treatment and the rehabilitative setting. Aim: The present study aimed to determine the awareness levels of midwifery students on child abuse and neglect, and to evaluate the efficacy of a planned training on this issue. Setting and Design: A semi-experimental study was performed in a Health Sciences Faculty, Turkey. Materials and Methods: Midwifery students (n = 85) enrolled in a Health Sciences Faculty comprised the sample of the study. The data were collected using a sociodemographic characteristics form and the Scale for the Identification of Symptoms and Risks of Child Abuse and Neglect (SISRCAN). Statistical Analysis Used: The study included a pretest, a training program on child abuse and neglect, and a posttest, and the data were analyzed using SPSS 21.0. Number, percentage, mean, paired samples t-test, and Wilcoxon test were used for the comparison of the values. A statistical significance level of P= 0.05 was applied. Results: Among the participants, 61.2% stated that they had encountered cases of child abuse before while 40% stated that they themselves had experienced child abuse. The participants' mean posttraining score on the whole SISRCAN and their mean posttraining scores on the subscales of “physical symptoms of the child,” “behavioral symptoms of child abuse,” “characteristics of parents prone to abusing and neglecting their children,” and “neglect and familial characteristics in child abuse and neglect” were found to significantly differ statistically (P < 0.001) compared to the mean scores they obtained in pretraining on the total scale and the mentioned subscales. Conclusion: Training programs that aim to raise the knowledge level of midwifery student, who play an especially important role in children's health, on child abuse and neglect in their future career should be planned and implemented effectively by the managers of health-care centers and hospitals.
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Identification of difference of working memory and sensory processing styles in boys and girls with writing-learning disorder p. 177
Alireza Sangani, Paria Jangi, Nahid Ramak, Aniseh Ahmadi
Context: The main problems of children with learning disorder are in memory and their sensory processing and it causes children's academic performance not appropriate. Aims: The aim of this study is to investigate of difference of working memory and sensory processing styles in boys and girls with writing-learning disorder. Settings and Design: This was a descriptive and analytic study in the summer of 2018 at a learning disorders center in Gorgan City, Iran. Materials and Methods: The study population was all girls and boys by the age of 8–10 years suffering from the writing-learning disorder. The available sampling method was used and 44 boys and 36 girls were chosen. The Dunn profile was obtained from the parents of the children. Daneman and Carpenter working memory, questions were asked from the children directly, and the information related to processing and storage in their memory were received. Furthermore, a demographic questionnaire was used. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were analyzed using in descriptive statistics (mean, standard deviation, and frequency), independent t-test, and multivariate analysis of variance. Results: There was a significant difference in the writing learning disorder among processing (P < 0.006) and storage (P < 0.000) of working memory subscales and the indoctrination associated with the physical state of the body motion (P < 0.000), multisensory processing (P < 0.000), and auditory processing (P < 0.002), of the sensory processing styles variable in both the girls and boys. Conclusions: With regard to the results obtained, it can be concluded that the boy's group is in worse conditions in working memory and sensory processing styles, which requires special attention and more focused educational approaches.
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Exploring stakeholder's perception about factors affecting on implementation of physiologic birth plan: A qualitative approach p. 183
Hamideh Azimi Lolaty, Farideh Rezaie-Abhari
Context: Following the increase in cesarean section rate in Iran, the Ministry of Health and Medical Education has planned a program for the promotion of normal birth. The plan named as “physiologic birth” that is equal with “spontaneous labor.” Aims: This study aims to explain factors affecting the implementation of “physiologic birth plan from stakeholders” view. Setting and Design: In this qualitative study, purposive samples of 21 health-care stakeholders (2 men and 19 women) were interviewed in 2016. The participants included three obstetricians and gynecologists, six midwives, three managers and experts in charge of the plan at the Mazandaran University of Medical Science, and nine women who gave birth under the physiological delivery (Spontaneous Labor) plan. Materials and Methods: Face-to-face semi-structured interviews and one focus group discussion were employed to collect the study data. Statistical Analysis Used: Qualitative content analysis method was used. Results: From the data analysis, the main theme “integrity of designing and implementation” and five subthemes as the influencing factors, namely, The “inadequate resources,” “ambiguity in tasks and roles,” “attention to psychosocial atmosphere,” “considering of the delivery culture,” and “incomprehensive training and updating the plan,” were extracted. Conclusion: This research suggests that the success behind implementing a plan in health-care system including the physiological delivery plan depends on the factors that are requiring should be identified and investigated from the designing stage to the implementation stage and after that. Thus, health system policymakers and planners are required to pay attention to diverse above-mentioned aspects in its designing and implementation.
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Cataract etiology and prevention in traditional Persian medicine texts p. 192
Afsaneh Bonyadi, Assie Jokar, Mostafa Moallemi
Context: According to the World Health Organization, cataract is the most common retrievable blind cause in the world. Nowadays, surgery is the only treatment to restore vision in patient with cataract. In regard to the high costs of surgery, prevention has a particular importance. In modern medicine, cataract risk factors are hardly preventable. Aims: Determination of the etiology and preventive solutions of cataract in traditional Persian medicine (TPM). Settings and Design: This is a summative qualitative content analysis that focused on Persian medicine texts in from 4th to 13th AH centuries. Materials and Methods: TPM literature were searched during centuries 4th to 13th AH, by using this key words: “Nuzūl-ul-mā”, “Ā’b murwārīd” and “āb āvardan chishm” or just “Mā,” and Databases (PubMed, PMC, Google Scholar, and Scopus) were searched by: Cataract; risk factor, etiology, prevention and treatment of cataract; This research has been done in seven phases. Statistical Analysis Used: All data about the treatment of cataract were collected and categorized into modern style. Results: According to TPM, to prevent cataract, first, it must be reduced or eliminated the causes of cataract; Those causes are classified to four themes such as physical factors, habits and inappropriate lifestyle, diseases, and age. Persian Physicians (Ḥakīm) proposed and used some prevention and medications to change some of these etiological factors to decrease the incidence of cataract. Conclusions: In this research, a wide range of preventive measures for cataract is observed which cannot be found in modern medicine. Changes in some etiological factors such as lifestyle can prevent this disease. Affirming this claim depends on clinical researches.
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Relationship between depression and social support and morale in the elderly p. 197
Fatemeh Pourtaghi, Monir Ramezani, Hamidreza Behnam Vashani, Zahra Hamedi, Zahra Emami Moghadam
Context: The priority of health issues in each community changes with aging and some problems related to aging, especially morale. Many factors such as social support and depression affect morale in the elderly. Aims: Current study aimed to assess the effect of depression and social support on morale in the elderly in the City of Mashhad. Setting and Design: This is a correlational study, which was conducted in 2016. Materials and Methods: Seventy elders from Bafti and Adviy-e-Chi urban health centers in the City of Mashhad participated in this correlational study in 2016. Related data were collected using Individual Characteristic Questionnaire, Geriatric Depression Scale, Duke Social Support Scale, and Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale. Statical Analysis Used: Data analysis was done in SPSS version 16 using multiple regression tests and Pearson correlation coefficient Results: The mean age of elders was 71.0 ± 6.2 years old and 68.6 percent (n= 42) of participants were female. Multiple regression test revealed significant reverse relationship between depression and morale in the elderly (P=0.022; β= 0/705), whereas social support had a significant and direct relationship with morale in the elderly (P= 0.003; β= 0.347). Findings of Pearson correlation coefficient revealed a significant reverse correlation between depression and morale in the elderly (P= 0.031; r= 0.261) and also a direct relationship between social support and morale (P= 0.006; r= 0.389). Conclusion: Regarding the effect of depression and social support on morale in the elderly, it is recommended to adopt caring and educational programs focusing on depression prevention and augmenting social support in order to improve morale during elderly.
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Frequency of sharp injuries and its related factors among high-risk wards staff p. 204
Omid Zadi Akhuleh, Ebrahim Nasiri, Meysam Heidari, Zeinab Bazari
Context: Blood-borne infections are a serious problem of health systems. Most of these infections are caused by sharp injuries. Aims: This study was conducted to determine the frequency of sharp injuries and its related factors among high-risk wards staff. Setting and Design: This cross-sectional study was conducted on high-risk wards staff at educational hospitals of sari in 2018. Materials and Methods: In this study, 306 high-risk wards staff who were working in educational hospitals of sari district for more than 1 year completed a self-administered questionnaire. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were analyzed using descriptive statics, independent T- test and Chi –square. Results: All participants had a history of sharp injuries during their work experience, and in the last year, from the 306 participants in this study, 250 (81.7%) had at least one Needle Stick Injuries (NSI) event. in 66.7% of cases in the surgical technologists, suture needles were reported to cause NSI. While, 61.1% of nurses, 61.4% of anesthesia personnel and 45.5% of physicians, reported syringe needles as the main cause of injury. Suture and stitch needle was the most important cause of injury. The result shows that there is no significant relationship between work experience and gender with NSI rate. Conclusions: The results of this study indicate a high prevalence of NSI in personnel of high-risk wards, especially in the operating room. Due to the excessive use of needles and needle stitches in these areas, the incidence of them is high. It is recommended that safety measures be taken in the use of sharp equipment to reduce the complications in case of an accident.
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