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   Table of Contents - Current issue
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October-December 2018
Volume 5 | Issue 4
Page Nos. 123-170

Online since Tuesday, January 15, 2019

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ORIGINAL ARTICLES  

The effect of concurrent endurance and resistance training on cardio-respiratory capacity and cardiovascular risk markers among sedentary overweight or obese post-menopausal women p. 123
Anahita Shabani, Ramin Shabani, Setila Dalili, Afagh Hassanzadeh Rad
DOI:10.4103/JNMS.JNMS_34_18  
Context: Exercise training has been inversely associated with cardiovascular risk factors. However, the clinical trials examining the effect of exercise training on reducing cardiovascular risk factors have produced conflicting results. Aims: We aimed to assess the effect of concurrent exercise training on cardiorespiratory capacity and cardio-vascular risk factors among sedentary overweight or obese post-menopausal women. Settings and Design: This randomized controlled trial was done in 2016. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 22 healthy post-menopausal overweight and obese females, which randomly divided into concurrent endurance and resistance (ER) exercise (n = 12) and control (n = 10) groups. The participants did not have any history of any serious medical condition or using drugs. Demographic questionnaire was completed, vital signs and biochemical tests were measured, and Rockport one-mile submaximal exercise test for assessing maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) was performed before and after the study. Statistical Analysis Used: Mean, standard deviation, and paired and independent t-test were used for statistical analysis. Results: The data from the ER groups showed that the body mass index (BMI), heart rate (HR), systolic and diastolic blood pressure, triglyceride, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) decreased, high-density lipoprotein, and VO2max increased significantly, during the 8 weeks (P < 0.05). Moreover, no changes were found in the cardiovascular risk factors of women who did not exercise (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Concurrent ER training can be a suitable exercise program for improving plasma lipid profile as well as reducing body composition, high-sensitivity CRP, and increasing VO2max in postmenopausal women.
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The effect of staff training on the amount of sound pollution in the intensive care unit p. 130
Kobra Zamani, Hossein Ali Asgharnia, Jamshid Yazdani, Zohreh Taraghi
DOI:10.4103/JNMS.JNMS_38_18  
Context: Sound pollution is a common problem in intensive care units (ICUs) with unfavorable consequences. Aims: The aim of the current study was to determine the effect of staff training on the amount of sound pollution in the ICU. Setting and Design: This quasi-experimental study was conducted in the ICU of Rouhani Hospital in Babol. Materials and Methods: Level of equivalent (leq) sound was measured in three work shifts for 2 weeks, before and after training, in 2 workdays and a holiday, using a systematic network stationing method. The sample size was determined based on the days of measurement, work-shift, and measuring stations (6 × 3 × 10 = 180). Indirect training was performed. A 2-week opportunity was given to study materials. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were analyzed using paired t-test and RMANOVA. Results: Following the training, the mean leq in all stations (ten stations) decreased from 67.21 to 62.11 dB (P = 0.002). Conclusion: Although the amount of sound pollution decreased significantly after training, it was still higher than standard. To achieve the desired level of sound, continuous monitoring of sound at intervals of 6 months, along with structural engineering and equipment, is suggested.
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The effect of relaxation exercises on emotions of primigravida women in famenin p. 134
Farzaneh Soltani, Samerah Ghlichkhani, Arezoo Shayan, Parisa Parsa, Ghodratollah Roshanaei
DOI:10.4103/JNMS.JNMS_32_18  
Context: Recognizing effective interventions for improving women's positive emotion can improve mental health and self-confidence in anxious women, at least during pregnancy. Aim: This study aimed to investigate the effect of relaxation training on positive and negative emotions of primigravida women. Setting and Design: In this randomized quasi-experimental study, 100 primigravida women with gestational age of 28–32 weeks, who were referred to the prenatal care centers in Famenin City (Hamadan, Iran), were randomly assigned into two groups of intervention and control, using randomized blocking. Methods and Material: All the pregnant women completed the positive and negative affect schedule questionnaire. In the intervention group, eight sessions were held twice a week with emphasis on relaxation techniques. The control group received routine prenatal care. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive statistics, independent and paired t-tests were used to compare the difference between and within two groups. Results: The mean score of positive emotion increased from 31.92 ± 6.39 to 34.12 ± 5.41 after intervention (P = 0.034). In contrast, the mean score of positive emotion in the control group reduced from 33.62 ± 6.58 to 26.92 ± 6.35 after the intervention (P < 0.001). In addition, there was a significant difference between the mean scores of positive emotion in the two groups after the intervention (P < 0.001). The mean score of negative emotion reduced from 24.12 ± 7.06 to 17.18 ± 5.95 in the intervention group (P < 0.001). On the other hand, the mean score of negative emotion in the control group increased from 22.08 ± 6.85 to 28.42 ± 7.24 after the intervention (P < 0.001). There was a significant difference between the mean scores of negative emotion in the two groups after the intervention (P < 0.001). The mean score of positive emotion of the women increased after the intervention (from 31.92 ± 6.39 to 34.12 ± 5.41) (P = 0.034). In contrast, the mean score of positive emotion of the women in the control group reduced after the intervention (from 33.62 ± 6.58 to 26.92 ± 6.35) (P < 0.001). Also, the mean score of negative emotion reduced in the intervention group (from 24.12 ± 7.06 to 17.18 ± 5.95). On the other hand, the mean score of negative emotion of the women in the control group significantly increased after the intervention (from 22.08 ± 6.85 to 28.42 ± 7.24). Conclusion: Research findings suggest that relaxation training may increase positive emotion and reduced negative emotion in pregnant women. It is recommended that relaxation techniques are used in prenatal care centers as a simple and available health intervention in pregnancy.
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Qualitative needs assessment: Iranian parents' perspectives in sexuality education of their children p. 140
Jila Ganji, Mohammad Hassan Emamian, Raziyeh Maasoumi, Afsanah Keramat, Effat Merghati-Khoei
DOI:10.4103/JNMS.JNMS_42_18  
Context: Parental education in sexuality plays a vital role in children's lives. Aims: The purpose of this study was to explore Iranian parents' perspectives about the needs of children sexuality education. Setting and Design: This qualitative study was done in 2016. Materials and Methods: In this qualitative inquiry, seven sessions of community group interview and focus group discussions were conducted with the parents of Ghaemshahr, Iran, using purposive sampling (n = 39, 27 mothers and 12 fathers). Statistical Analysis Used: We employed thematic analysis method to extract our findings. Results: The findings were categorized into three essential needs: (1) parents' preparedness, (2) efficacious parental management, and (3) supportive environments. The sub-theme describing the theme 1 includes “the need for adequate knowledge to answer the sexual questions and the child's sexual curiosity” and “the need for awareness about the time of beginning an appropriate sexuality education for children.” Moreover, the sub-theme describing theme 2 includes “the need for sufficient skills to begin proper and intimate communication,” “the need for effective monitoring and care,” and “the need for capability in managing the child sexual behavior.” Moreover, the sub-theme describing theme 3 includes “the need to receive training from sexual health professionals,” “the need for authorized sexuality education programs,” “the need for national-wide policy-making and strategy planning in sexuality education,” and “the need for a comprehensive and complete educational resource.” Conclusion: Our findings suggest that to address the goals in sexuality education for children, parents' need to be prepared in knowledge, and gaining positive attitude and practical skills. To achieve these goals, supportive environments must be provided by policy-makers and health providers with culturally appropriate strategy planning.
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Strategies for improving the integrated program of HIV/AIDS with sexual and reproductive health: using nominal group technique p. 147
Maryam Hajizadevalokolaee, Zohreh Shahhosseini, Soghra Khani, Fereshteh Yazdani, Zeinab Hamzehgardeshi
DOI:10.4103/JNMS.JNMS_35_18  
Context: The spread of HIV is growing, so that its way of transmission has created worries in the field of sexual and reproductive health, because the wave of transmission has changed from injection to sexual activities. Aims: To evaluate the perspectives of sexual and reproductive health experts and providers on strategies for improving the integrated program of HIV/AIDS with sexual and reproductive health using the nominal group technique (NGT). Setting and Design: Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran. NGT. Materials and Methods: It was a semiquantitative/qualitative methodology research through NGT, based on the opinions of 30 experts and sexual and reproductive health providers in the field of health in Mazandaran (2016). Statistical Analysis Used: Semiquantitative/qualitative analysis. Results: In total, 15 cases got the scores of 2–62 as strategies to improve the integrated program of HIV/AIDS with sexual and reproductive health. The highest scores were found in society-centered level and stigma management, and the lowest scores were found in individual-centered level and negotiation skill training. Conclusion: One of the strategies to improve the integrated program of HIV/AIDS was the empowerment of women and men in sexual and reproductive health and stigma management. Based on the results, the NGT is a useful tool for doing researches and prioritizing the programs. Based on the expert opinion, it can be concluded that designing strategies based on individual-, community-, and society-centered approach would be an appropriate approach for improving the integrated program of HIV/AIDS with sexual and reproductive health issues in Iranian society.
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Evaluation of occupational hazards for nurses in intensive care units of tertiary care centers p. 153
Kobra Abdi Zarrini, Akram Sanagoo, Leila Jouybari, Mohammad Ali Vakili, Ali Kavosi
DOI:10.4103/JNMS.JNMS_52_18  
Context: Nursing is a high-risk occupation, and intensive care units (ICUs) are one of the most sensitive hospital wards. Aim: This study aimed to determine the level of occupational hazards among nurses in the ICUs. Setting and Design: This descriptive-analytical study was conducted on a total of 281 nurses in the ICUs of tertiary care centers in Golestan and Mazandaran Universities of Medical Sciences in 2017. Materials and Methods: Data were collected using a five-dimensional occupational hazard questionnaire. Statistical Analysis Used: Data analysis was performed in SPSS software (version 16) and descriptive and inferential statistics were considered statistically significant (P < 0.05). Results: In this study, 75.1% of the nurses were female and 50.9% of the participants were within the age range of 26–35 years. The total mean and standard deviation of occupational hazards was 3.20 ± 0.66. In addition, the mean values and standard deviations of chemical, ergonomic, biological, psychosocial, and organizational, as well as physical hazards were reported to be 2.43 ± 1.06, 2.6 ± 0.82, 2.63 ± 0.91, 3.38 ± 0.7, and 3.38 ± 0.86, respectively. According to the results, significant differences were observed between occupational hazards and variables of gender, marital status, educational level, and work experience (P = 0.0001). Conclusion: Occupational hazard level was moderate among nurses in the ICUs, and most of the damages were related to the physical dimension. In addition to holding educational workshops in tertiary care centers by the related officials, proper preventive plans must be designed to reduce occupational injuries.
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Incidence and risk factors of pressure ulcers among general surgery patients p. 159
Ensieh Ramezanpour, Amir Emami Zeydi, Mohammad Ali Heidari Gorji, Jamshid Yazdani Charati, Mahmood Moosazadeh, Vida Shafipour
DOI:10.4103/JNMS.JNMS_23_17  
Context: Pressure ulcers are among the main postoperative complications which isassociated with an increased length of hospitalization. Determining risk factors of postsurgical pressureulcers is crucial for developing prevention and treatment strategies. Aims: This study aimed to investigate the incidence rate of pressure ulcer and related risk factors after general surgery. Settings and Design: This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in three hospitals in Mazandaran province in 2016. Materials and Methods: The sample size was 191 surgical patients undergoing general surgery by using census method. Data were collected in pre-, intra-, and post-operative period using demographic and clinical questionnaires and also, through the Braden Scale for Predicting Pressure Ulcer Risk. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive statistics, t-test, Chi-square, and univariateand multivariate logistic regression were used to analyze the data. Results: The incidence rate of postoperative pressure ulcers in patients was 17.8% (34 out of 191 patients). Based on the multivariate logistic regression model, significant correlations existed between the incidence of pressure ulcers and the following variables: age over 70 years old (P = 0.003), history of hypertension (P = 0.035), history of heart diseases (P = 0.029), Braden score <15 (P = 0.017), type of surgery (P = 0.003), and type of anesthesia (P = 0.015). Conclusions: Since it is critical to consider the incidence of postoperative pressure ulcers among patients, further measurements are required to identify high-risk people and use preventive protocols by nurses at pre-, intra-, and post-operative levels. Moreover, it requires extra attention in patients over 70 years, those with a history of hypertension and heart diseases, and those undergoing emergency surgery and spinal anesthesia.
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The relationship between the quality of nursing care and the satisfaction of pregnant mothers p. 165
Ali Hatami, Zohreh Saeidlandi, Azam Jahanghiri Mehr, Akram Hemmatipour
DOI:10.4103/JNMS.JNMS_44_18  
Context: The Health System Development Plan is one of the key steps taken by the eleventh government to promote health services in the country. Aims: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the quality of nursing care and the satisfaction of pregnant mothers from the implementation of the health system development plan. Settings and Design: This research was an analytic cross-sectional study. The study population included 163 mothers who were hospitalized before delivery and 18 nurses from maternity sections who were selected by the census method during the 3 months of September 2017–November 2017. Material and Methods: The data collection tool was a demographic data form, quality patient care scale, and a researcher-made questionnaire on the satisfaction of hospitalized mothers in maternity sections of the implementation of the Health System Reform Plan. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Mann–Whitney test, and correlation coefficient in SPSS-16 software. Results: The results showed that the quality of care in nurses at the desired level (63%) and the satisfaction of mother maternity sections of the delivery system had a moderate level of implementation of the Health System Development Plan (56.3%). The results of Pearson's correlation test showed that there is a statistically significant relationship between the quality of nursing care and patient satisfaction (P = 0.001). Conclusions: The satisfaction of the mothers participating in the research was that the quality of nursing care was often modest after implementing the Health System Reform Plan.
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